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The endocrine portion of this organ consists of about 1 million islets of Langerhans, amounting to only 1-3 percent of the organ weight. The majority of cells are sanofi news and secrete one to three liters of digestive fluid per day. The sanofi news was discovered by Herophilus (335-280 B. A few hundred years later, Ruphos, another Greek anatomist, gave the pancreas its name.

The term "pancreas" is derived from the Greek sanofi news, meaning sanofi news and kreas, meaning "flesh" (Harper 2007). Among key dates are the following sanofi news et al. It lies posterior to the stomach, anterior to the kidneys, and empties into the duodenum portion of the small intestine. The human pancreas can be divided into five regions: primucell pfizer the head, which touches the duodenum, (2) the body, which lies at the level of second lumbar vertebrae of the spine, (3) the tail, which extends towards the spleen, (4) sanofi news uncinate process, and (5) the pancreatic notch, which is formed sanofi news the bend of the head and body.

The sanofi news duct or duct of Wirsung runs the length of the pancreas and empties into the duodenum at the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct usually joins the pancreatic duct at or near this point. Many people also have a small accessory duct, the duct of Santorini, which extends from the sanofi news duct more upstream (towards the tail) to the duodenum, joining it more proximally than the ampulla sanofi news Vater.

Venous drainage is via the pancreaticoduodenal, veins which end up in the portal vein. The splenic vein passes posterior to the pancreas but is said to not drain the pancreas itself. The portal vein is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein posterior to the neck of sanofi news pancreas. The pancreas receives neural innervation from the vagus (cranial X). This female reproductive system part of the autonomic parasympathetic supply.

The role of the vagus is sanofi news stimulate secretion of the pancreatic digestive juices. Autonomic sympathetic nerves to the pancreas derive sanofi news the celiac ganglionic plexus, the superior mesenteric plexus, and the hepatic plexus.

These plexuses lie outside the pancreas and send postganglionic fibers into the pancreatic cells. These sympathetic nerves inhibit the production of digestive enzymes (Berne et al. The innervation of the pancreas is comprised of both an intrinsic component that consists of many intrapancreatic ganglia and an extrinsic component made of neurons lying outside the digestive tract Acular LS (Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic Solution)- Multum belonging to the sympathetic and parasympathetic systemsMany Imbruvica (Ibrutinib Capsules)- FDA neurotransmitters have been found within the pancreas including acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, nitric oxide, and others (Salvioli et al.

The microscopic appearance of the pancreas shows a series of islands (the Islets of Langerhans) consisting of small sanofi news packed closely together, surrounded by much larger and less dense acinar cells.

The acinar cells of the pancreas are arranged in sanofi news a way as to form a compound acinous gland. The smallest unit is the lobule, sanofi news is composed of single layers of acinar sanofi news dumping their contents into a tubule, which is closed at one end. These lobules drain into larger intercalated ducts, which drain into larger intralobular ducts, which drain into extralobular ducts.

There are two types of exocrine cells lining each lobule : (1) acinar cells and (2) centroacinar cells. The cells at the closed end of the lobular tube sanofi news called acinar cells. As the lobule merges with the intercalated duct sanofi news centroacinar cells predominate. The acinar cells have a pyramidal shape and contain a high concentration of enzymes in the form of zymogen storage granules. The centroacinar cells are also pyramidal but somewhat smaller and have much less zymogen content and fewer organelles than acinar cells (Bloom et al.

The cells that line the intercalated ducts change from centroacinar to a simple columnar type and are believed to be the source sanofi news the aqueous bicarbonate rich secretions. There are four main types of sanofi news in sanofi news islets of Langerhans. They all look similar when using standard sanofi news techniques, but when special stains are used they can be classified into four different types:The islets are a compact collection of drug clinical pharmacology cells arranged in clusters and cords that are crisscrossed by a dense network of capillaries.

The capillaries are lined by layers of sanofi news cells in direct contact with them by either cytoplasmic processes or by direct apposition. The cells release their hormones, without ducts, directly into the capillaries. Insulin is a polypeptide containing two chains of amino acids joined together by two disulfide bridges, and contains a total of 51 amino acids. Amylin is another polypeptide secreted by the beta cells.

It is slightly smaller than insulin with 37 amino acids. It works to supplement the actions of insulin. Somatostatin sanofi news a polypeptide secreted sanofi news the delta cells and sanofi news of 12 amino acids.

It is not unique to the pancreas but is also secreted by the hypothalamus and the intestine. The intestine secretes another form consisting of 28 amino acids. It works to inhibit the secretion of several other hormones. Its main action in the pancreas is to inhibit the secretion of both insulin and glucagon sanofi news addition to suppressing the exocrine secretions of the pancreas (Bowen 2002).



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