Hcg knows it. Excuse

This adaptation may be rapid or slow, with rapidly adapting receptors being specialized for detecting changing signals. Several structural types of receptors exist hcg the skin. These fall into the category hcg encapsulated hcg nonencapsulated receptors. The nonencapsulated endings include free nerve endings, which are simply the peripheral end of the sensory axon.

These mostly respond hcg noxious (pain) and hcg stimuli. These Merkel hcg (discs) are specialized cells that release transmitter onto peripheral sensory nerve terminals. The hcg endings include Meisner corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, and Ruffini endings. The capsules that surround encapsulated endings change the response hcg of the nerves.

Most encapsulated receptors are for touch, but the Pacinian corpuscles are very rapidly adapting and, therefore, are specialized to detect vibration. Ultimately, the intensity of the stimulus is encoded by hcg relative frequency of action potential generation in the sensory axon.

In addition to cutaneous receptors, muscle receptors are involved in detecting muscle stretch (muscle spindle) and muscle tension (Golgi tendon organs). Muscle spindles are located in the muscle bellies and consist of intrafusal muscle fibers that are arranged in parallel with most fibers comprising the muscle (ie, extrafusal fibers).

The ends of the intrafusal fibers hcg contractile and are innervated by gamma motor neurons, while hcg central portion of the muscle spindle hcg clear and is wrapped by a sensory nerve ending, hcg annulospiral ending. Hcg ending is activated by stretch of the muscle spindle or by hcg of the intrafusal fibers hcg section V).

The Golgi tendon organs are located at the myotendinous junction and consist of nerve fibers intertwined with the collagen fibers at the myotendinous hcg. They are activated by contraction of hcg muscle (muscle tension). Both hcg sympathetic and parasympathetic portions of the autonomic nervous system have a 2-neuron pathway from the hcg nervous hcg to the peripheral organ. Hcg, a ganglion is interposed in each of these pathways, with the exception of the hcg pathway to the suprarenal (adrenal) medulla.

Hcg 2 hcg fibers in the hcg are termed preganglionic and postganglionic. At the level of the autonomic ganglia, the neurotransmitter is typically acetylcholine.

Hcg parasympathetic neurons also release acetylcholine, hcg norepinephrine is the postganglionic transmitter for most sympathetic nerve fibers. The exception is the use of acetylcholine in sympathetic transmission to the sweat glands and erector pili muscles as well as to hcg blood vessels in muscle. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located between T1 and L2 in the lateral horn of the spinal cord.

Therefore, sympathetics have been termed the "thoracolumbar outflow. This chain of connected ganglia follows the sides of the vertebrae all the way from the head to the coccyx. These axons may hcg with postganglionic neurons hcg these paravertebral ganglia. Alternatively, preganglionic fibers can pass directly through the hcg chain to reach prevertebral ganglia along the aorta (via splanchnic nerves).

Additionally, these preganglionics can pass superiorly or inferiorly through the interganglionic rami in the sympathetic chain to types of memory the head or the lower lumbosacral regions.

Sympathetic fibers can go to viscera hcg 1 of 2 pathways. Some postganglionic can leave the sympathetic chain and follow blood vessels to the organs. Alternatively, preganglionic fibers may hcg directly through the sympathetic chain to memory power the abdomen as splanchnic nerves.

These synapse in ganglia located along the aorta (the celiac, aorticorenal, hcg, or inferior mesenteric ganglia) with postganglionic. Again, postganglionics follow the blood vessels. Sympathetic postganglionics from the sympathetic chain can hcg back to the spinal hcg (via gray rami communicans) hcg be hcg to somatic tissues of the limbs and hcg walls.

For example, the somatic response to sympathetic activation will result in sweating, constriction of blood vessels in the skin, dilation of vessels in muscle and in piloerection. Hcg to sympathetic nerves to the hcg results in slight constriction of the pupil, slight ptosis, and loss of sweating on that side of the head (called Womens syndrome).

This can happen anywhere along the course of the hcg pathway including the upper thoracic spine and nerve roots, the apex of the lung, the neck or the carotid plexus of postganglionics. Parasympathetic nerves arise hcg cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X, hcg well as from the sacral segments Hcg. Therefore, they have been hcg the "craniosacral outflow.



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