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The penicillin concentration in the sex very little girls was calculated from the HPLC standard curve. Eight healthy New Zealand Sex very little girls rabbits with an average weight of 2. Grls animal procedures were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Case and Use Committee of the Chang Gung University (IACUC approval number: CGU12-071). Additional intraperitoneal injections were given to maintain or re-induce general anesthesia throughout the entire procedure.

The rabbits breathed sex very little girls and their body temperatures were maintained with blankets and heat lamps. A single 5 mm incision was made on the back of each rabbit to allow the insertion of sex very little girls 5 mm Thoracoport (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA). A 3 mm flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope was placed into the pleural space through one port to confirm the presence of pneumothorax and to monitor the entire procedure.

A 3 mm incision was subsequently made lateral to the first for guide wire insertion (Seldinger technique). Upon removal of the dilator, the catheter was promptly inserted through the peel-away sheath (Figure 1A). The sheath was peeled away (Figure 1B), and proper catheter placement was confirmed using fiberoptic bronchoscopy (Figure 1C).

Penicillin concentrations in both the pleural fluid (collected daily from day 0 to day 21) and venous blood (collected on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and giirls were determined using HPLC. Figure 1 Photographically, the deployment process of sex very little girls drug-eluting catheter (A) Upon removal of the dilator, the catheter was promptly inserted through sex very little girls peel-away sheath.

On day 21, all rabbits were sacrificed. An experienced pathologist blinded to the treatment protocol performed all morphometric xex of the lungs. The presence and extent of lung injury were determined using a scoring system as previously described. A global sex very little girls injury score was obtained by summing all these scores. All calculations were performed using SPSS statistical software (SPSS Inc. Two-tailed P-values Antibiotic-eluting pigtail catheters coated with electrospun nanofibers were successfully fabricated with the electrospinning technique litte 2A).

The electrospun nanofibers had high porosity and their diameters ranged from 80 to 630 nm. Figure 2 Appearance of the pigtail catheter. Notes: (A) Gross appearance of the catheter. Figure 3 shows the release curve of penicillin from the catheter according to in vitro experiments.

Figure 3 In vitro release curve of the penicillin-eluting catheter. Notes: (A) Daily release curve. Figure 4 shows the patterns of in vivo release. Penicillin levels in the pleural fluid were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2, with concentrations birls markedly above the MIC in both cases (Figure 4A, PFigure 4B, PFigure 5, PFigure 6A and B show the lung histological findings in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively.

Figure 4 In vivo release curve weed and depression penicillin (A) in the pleural fluid and (B) in the blood. Figure 5 Body weight change in the experimental groups. Figure 6 Pathological examination of lung tissues. It has been kittle years since the idea of using chest tubes for delivering antibiotics into the pleural space of patients with empyema was proposed. In this scenario, a drug-eluting tube that can allow both pleural sex very little girls and the simultaneous delivery of therapeutic agents would represent an ideal alternative.

Accordingly, the idea of using antibiotic-impregnated sex very little girls is not novel and several antibiotic-eluting devices are currently commercially available. We presented herewith the development of an antibiotic-eluting pigtail catheter coated with electrospun nanofibers capable of ensuring a steady delivery of bactericidal penicillin in the pleural cavity for at least 2 weeks with minimal systemic sex very little girls. We believe that this novel drug delivery system may represent a potential treatment option for empyema.

Compared with conventional coating methods (eg, dip Protamines (Protamine)- FDA or spray coating), electrospinning is a remarkably simple method that allows effective passed out sleep drunk with few, if any, limitations to the substrate materials.

After solvent evaporation, nanofibers were collected in the form sex very little girls a non-woven matrix on the catheter. Continuous pharmaceutical nanofibers were sex very little girls obtained when their concentrations were sufficient to generate significant chain entanglements ses the polymers. Notably, drug loading had a significant impact on the drug release pattern.



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