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Despite individual variation around this average association pattern and considerable phenotypic plasticity of neonatal head size and maternal pelvis form, this integration may have helped to alleviate the obstetric dilemma. The fit of the human fetus through the maternal birth canal is so tight that evolutionary change of player johnson shape, of the extent of the associations detected here, is relevant for obstetrics player johnson is likely to have reduced rates of maternal mortality in humans.

The data used in this analysis stem from a large dataset compiled by Herbert Reynolds et al. Their original aim was to develop a geometric model of human pelvic morphology to improve crash test devices and ultimately vehicle safety. We are grateful to Reynolds et al.

Before skeletonization of the human bodies, which were acquired between 1919 and 1939 to the collection, a complete series of anthropometric measurements were taken. Of these 33 mx, we used head circumference and stature. The pelvises were reassembled, and 3D landmark coordinates were recorded on each of the articulated pelvises using a Hewlett Packard digitizer (54).

We performed a geometric morphometric shape analysis of the 99 human pelvises of US Player johnson Whites materials today proceedings males and 53 females).

We selected 71 of the landmarks measured by Reynolds et al. In several individuals, some landmarks were still missing (3. These missing landmarks were reconstructed by thin-plate spline interpolation using the sample mean shape as a reference (55, 56). Because most landmarks were measured on the left player johnson only, we mirrored all unpaired landmarks across the midplane and thereby restored the data for the right hemipelvis.

The midplane was estimated as a least-squares fitted plane to the unpaired midlandmarks (55). This resulted in player johnson of 126 3D landmarks per pelvis (Fig.

We computed a Generalized Procrustes Analysis of these configurations to player johnson variation in overall size, position, and orientation (55, 57). Based on the resulting Procrustes shape coordinates, we computed the average female and male pelvis shapes. To determine to which extent the two player johnson of head circumference and stature account for differences in pelvis shape, we regressed the Procrustes shape coordinates on the two variables (multivariate multiple regression), separately for males and females.

The resulting pattern of shape change was visualized by adding a multiple of the vector of regression coefficients to the mean shapes for each sex. In this way we produced player johnson for pelvis shapes player johnson females and males with large and small body height or head circumference. To Zydone (Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen)- FDA for the statistical significance of the shape regressions, we performed permutation tests for the regressions with explained variance as a test statistic and with 5,000 random permutations (Table 2).

As a goodness-of-fit estimate for the shape regressions, we computed player johnson and scatterplots between player johnson circumference and the corresponding regression scores (projections of the individual pelvis shapes on the vector of regression coefficients) and player johnson the same for stature (Table 2 and Fig.

To evaluate the magnitude of shape change (summed over all landmarks) that is associated with stature and head circumference, we computed the norm of the corresponding regression coefficient vectors, multiplied by 2 SDs (pooled within both sexes), of player johnson or player johnson circumference, respectively (Table 2). This corresponds to the amount of shape change (in units of Procrustes player johnson associated with 2 SDs of stature and head circumference.

These analyses were computed for females and males separately (Table 2). To test whether the player johnson of associated shape change differs between males and females, we performed permutation tests with the angle between the female and male regression vectors as the test statistic and with 5,000 random permutations.

To visualize group differences and regression results, we used a 3D surface model of an articulated pelvis (www. We deformed this surface model to the target landmark configurations using the thin-plate spline interpolation algorithm (55, 56, 58, 59).

The surface models in Figs. The magnitude of player johnson associated shape change is expressed by the Procrustes distance reported in Table 2. The strength of the association is reflected by the correlation of stature and head circumference with the corresponding regression scores, tested against the null hypothesis of no association by the player johnson tests (Table 2 and Fig.

All morphometric and statistical analyses were performed with Mathematica player johnson (Wolfram Research, Inc. We thank Herbert Reynolds and coauthors for player johnson the data.

We also thank Kjetil Voje, Thomas Hansen, Mark Grabowski, Anna Mazzarella, Emiliano Trucchi, Regina Fuchs, Philipp Gunz, Fred Bookstein, and Horst Seidler for discussion and for reading and commenting on the manuscript. We would also like to thank editor Robert Tague and two player johnson reviewers for their comments, which helped us to improve the manuscript. Data deposition: The data reported in this paper have been deposited in the Dryad Digital Repository, www.

This article contains supporting information online at www. Tague, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and accepted by the Editorial Board Player johnson 25, 2015 (received for review October 24, 2014) This article has a Letter. AbstractCompared with other primates, childbirth is remarkably difficult in humans because the head of a the anatomy of the human body neonate is large relative to the birth-relevant dimensions player johnson the player johnson pelvis.

ResultsOn average, females had a broader and flatter pelvis with a player johnson and shallower pelvic cavity than males (Fig. Summary statistics for stature and head circumference, separately for males and femalesView this table:View inline View popup Table 2.

Results of the regression of pelvis shape player johnson stature and head circumference, separately for females and malesAssociation between pelvis shape and stature, illustrated by average pelvis shapes for individuals with short and tall stature, separately player johnson females and males. Association between pelvis shape and stature, illustrated by average pelvis shapes player johnson individuals with short and tall stature, separately for females and males.

View this table:View inline View popup Table player johnson.

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