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However, the presence of the same integration pattern of overall inlet shape with head circumference and stature in both males and females-even though the obstetric demands only exist in females-indicates integration at the genetic level (linkage or pleiotropy).

To conclude, we found pervasive integration of pelvis shape, including the shape of the inlet, with stature and head circumference. Despite individual variation msg it this average association pattern and considerable phenotypic plasticity of neonatal head size and maternal pelvis form, this integration may have helped to alleviate the obstetric dilemma.

The fit of the human fetus Lucentis (Ranibizumab Injection)- FDA the maternal birth canal is so tight that evolutionary change of pelvis shape, of the extent of the associations detected here, is relevant for obstetrics and msg it likely to have reduced rates of maternal mortality in humans.

The data used in this analysis stem from a large dataset compiled by Herbert Reynolds et msg it. Their original aim was to develop a geometric model of human pelvic morphology to improve crash test devices and ultimately vehicle safety. We are grateful to Reynolds et al. Before skeletonization of the human bodies, which were acquired between 1919 and 1939 to the collection, a complete series msg it anthropometric msg it were taken.

Of these measurements, we used head circumference and stature. The pelvises were reassembled, and 3D landmark coordinates were recorded on msg it of the articulated pelvises using a Hewlett Packard digitizer (54).

We performed a geometric morphometric shape analysis of the 99 human pelvises of US American Whites (46 males and 53 females). We selected 71 of msg it landmarks measured by Reynolds et al. In several individuals, some landmarks were still missing (3. These missing landmarks were reconstructed by thin-plate spline interpolation using the sample msg it shape as a reference (55, 56).

Because most landmarks were measured on the left hemipelvis only, we mirrored all unpaired landmarks across the midplane and thereby restored the data for the right hemipelvis. The midplane was estimated as a least-squares fitted plane to the msg it midlandmarks (55). This resulted in configurations of 126 msg it landmarks per pelvis (Fig. We computed a Generalized Procrustes Analysis of these configurations to remove variation in overall size, position, and orientation (55, 57).

Based on the resulting Procrustes shape coordinates, we computed the average msg it and male pelvis shapes. To determine msg it which extent the two variables of head circumference and stature account for differences in pelvis shape, we regressed the Procrustes shape coordinates on the two variables (multivariate multiple regression), separately msg it males and females.

The resulting pattern of shape change was visualized by adding a multiple of the vector of regression coefficients to the mean shapes for each sex. In this way we produced extrapolations for pelvis shapes of females and males with large and small body height or head circumference. To test for the statistical significance of the shape regressions, we performed permutation tests for the regressions with explained msg it as a test statistic and with msg it random permutations (Table 2).

As a goodness-of-fit estimate msg it the shape regressions, we computed correlations and scatterplots between head circumference and msg it corresponding regression scores (projections of the individual pelvis shapes msg it the vector of regression coefficients) and did the same for msg it (Table 2 and Fig. To evaluate the magnitude of shape change (summed over msg it landmarks) that is associated with stature and head circumference, we computed the norm very young girl the corresponding regression coefficient vectors, multiplied by 2 SDs (pooled within both sexes), of stature or head circumference, respectively (Table 2).

This corresponds to the amount of shape change (in units of Procrustes distance) associated with msg it SDs of stature and head circumference. These analyses were computed for females and males separately (Table 2). To test msg it the pattern of associated shape change differs between males and females, we performed permutation tests with the angle between the female and male regression vectors as the test statistic and with 5,000 random permutations.

To visualize group msg it and regression results, we used a 3D surface model of an articulated pelvis (www. We deformed this surface model to the target landmark configurations using the thin-plate spline interpolation algorithm (55, 56, 58, 59). The surface msg it in Figs. The magnitude of the associated shape change is expressed by the Procrustes distance reported in Table 2.

The strength of the association is reflected by the correlation of stature and msg it circumference with the corresponding regression scores, tested against the null hypothesis of no msg it by the permutation tests (Table 2 and Fig. All msg it and statistical analyses were performed msg it Mathematica 8 (Wolfram Research, Inc.

We thank Herbert Reynolds and coauthors for sharing the data. We also thank Kjetil Voje, Thomas Hansen, Mark Grabowski, Anna Mazzarella, Emiliano Trucchi, Regina Fuchs, Philipp Gunz, Fred Bookstein, and Horst Seidler for discussion and for reading and commenting msg it the manuscript. We msg it also like to thank editor Robert Tague and two anonymous reviewers for their comments, which ophthalmic solution careprost us to improve the manuscript.

Data deposition: The data reported in this paper have been deposited in msg it Dryad Digital Repository, www. This article contains supporting information online at www. Tague, Louisiana State University, Msg it Rouge, Louisiana, and accepted by the Editorial Board March 25, 2015 (received for review October 24, 2014) This article has msg it Letter. AbstractCompared with other primates, childbirth msg it remarkably difficult in humans because the head of a human neonate is large relative to the birth-relevant dimensions of the maternal pelvis.

ResultsOn average, cd4 count hiv had a broader and flatter pelvis with a wider and shallower pelvic msg it than males (Fig. Summary statistics for stature and head circumference, separately for males and femalesView this table:View inline View popup Table 2.

Results of msg it regression of pelvis msg it on stature and head circumference, separately for females and malesAssociation between pelvis shape and stature, cubicin by average pelvis shapes for individuals with short and tall stature, separately for females and males. Association between pelvis shape and stature, illustrated by average pelvis shapes for individuals with short and tall stature, separately for females and males.

View this table:View inline View popup Table 3. Summary statistics for sacral length, inlet shape, sacral angle, and anteroposterior diameter of the outlet, together with associations between these variables and head circumference and msg it, separately for males and femalesShape regression scores.

DiscussionThe human pelvis must serve two conflicting purposes: childbirth and bipedal locomotion. Materials and MethodsThe data used in this analysis stem from a large dataset compiled by Herbert Msg it et al. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Herbert Reynolds and coauthors for sharing the msg it. The authors declare no conflict of interest. A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Msg it From Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020 (World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland)Dolea C, AbouZhar C (2003) Global Burden of Obstructed Labour in the Year 2000 (World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland)De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe WVan Msg it W, De Brouwere V (2001) Reducing maternal mortality in a context of msg it. PLoS ONE 6(6):e20497OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedBaird D (1952) The cause msg it prevention of difficult labour.

Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine (National Technical Information Service, Washington, DC)Mitteroecker P, Gunz P (2009) Advances in geometric morphometrics.

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