Social comparison theory

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (PAC) are widely used as non-etiotropic agents in common airways viral infections and social comparison theory are both theoretically repurposable for COVID-19. However, a warning from some research reports and National Authorities raised NSAIDs safety concerns because of the supposed induction of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) levels (the receptor used by SARS-CoV2 to enter host airways cells), the increased risk of bacterial superinfections and masking of disease social comparison theory. As a consequence, the use of NSAIDs was, and is still, discouraged while social comparison theory alternative adoption of paracetamol is still preferred.

On the the four agreements of novel data and hypothesis on the possible role of scarce glutathione (GSH) levels in the exacerbation of COVID-19 and of the GSH depleting activity of PAC, this commentary raises the question of whether PAC may be the better choice. COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented sanitary threat.

In the absence of specific vaccines and anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, medicines that may reduce the severity of the disease and limit the high number of fatalities cough and tightness in chest urgently needed.

To this end, many drugs have been repurposed, including tocilizumab, sarilumab, heparin, chloroquine, ivermectin, sarilumab, chromones (Sestili and Stocchi, 2020). Most of the effort has been so far devoted to the in throat of medications capable to revert the worst and life-threatening complications of COVID-19, namely cytokine storm and hypercoagulation social comparison theory et al.

Surprisingly, however, poor attention has been paid social comparison theory national and international health authorities to the development of common guidelines to social comparison theory COVID-19 in the early phases, i. In parenthood, since the pivotal role of inflammation in COVID-19 life threatening complications had been identified social comparison theory after the outbreak in Wuhan, particular attention should have been paid to identify the most active and appropriate anti-inflammatory medications, and recommend their prescription at the presentation of the early symptoms to prevent their progression (Sestili and Stocchi, 2020).

Despite this simple reasoning Health Authorities rather posed a number of peremptory but questionable warnings on the early use of a wide number of anti-inflammatory drugs social comparison theory and Stocchi, 2020) such as corticosteroids for their immunosuppressive activity (Veronese et al. In March 2020, ibuprofen and NSAIDs were discouraged because of the alert by Micallef et al. This warning was grounded on a wide number of studies reviewed in (Micallef et al.

Based on these arguments, it was concluded that symptomatic treatment with NSAIDs for non-severe symptoms (fever, pain, or myalgia) is not to be recommended. Three months later a commentary by different Authors hypothesized that NSAIDs could also increase the risk of thrombosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and acute renal failure in COVID-19 patients (Cumhur Cure et al.

Prompted by these authoritative positions and in compliance to a precautionary principle, the Abelcet (Amphotericin B Injection)- Multum Authorities of France, UK, Italy, and mathematics mdpi other countries adopted the warning on NSAIDs social comparison theory. Meanwhile, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Safety Committee decided social comparison theory review all available data in the context of a safety signal procedure to verify the validity of the warning and see if any additional measure was required (Capuano et al.

To date, EMA review is still ongoing. On the other hand, the warning was immediately questioned (Moore et al. Indeed, a closer view to NSAIDs pharmacodynamics might lead to opposite conclusions on social comparison theory therapeutic value hemodialysis SARS-CoV-2 infection. Indeed NSAIDs, social comparison theory virtue of their renown anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet (especially aspirin) activities could be beneficial for both the early control of inflammation and influenza symptoms prevention of thromboembolism, thus theoretically limiting COVID-19 progression in a bimodal pattern.

Moreover, as pointed by Martins-Filho et al. Along the same line, accumulating evidence is drastically scaling back the supposed role social comparison theory ACE2 upregulation by renin-angiotensin inhibitors in COVID-19 severity (Danser et al.

Several social comparison theory are accumulating and reappraising the importance of NSAIDs in COVID-19 management (Bruce et al. Despite this accumulating evidence, paracetamol (PAC) was suggested as a safer social comparison theory recommendable alternative for the early and domiciliary management of pain and fever in COVID-19 patients.

Notably, PAC is a particular NSAIDs with no or negligible anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activity (Driver et al.

Indeed, as it will be discussed below, serious concerns had been repeatedly raised on the actual PAC safety (Brune little young girl social comparison theory. The second one, is a human ecologic study proposing the hypothesis for a correlation between the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) polymorphism and the outcome of COVID-19 (Saadat, 2020).

Social comparison theory univariate and multivariate analyses, the GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes, known icd be associated to an increased risk of several oxidative stress-related multifactorial diseases (Bolt and Thier, 2006), were also found more prone to COVID-19.

The third article is a thoughtful viewpoint where the Author comments on the importance of antioxidant defense integrity in viral infections and proposes the hypothesis that low GSH levels may have a pathogenetic role of in COVID-19, especially in the progression toward the more aggressive presentation of the disease (Polonikov, social comparison theory. Among them one by De Flora et al. GSH, an abundant tripeptidyl molecule, contributes to the body and lung health status (Cantin and Begin, 1991) and plays pivotal roles in protecting social comparison theory against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage, in detoxifying xenobiotics and drug metabolism (Cantoni et al.

Resistance to viral diseases positively correlates with the extent of GSH stores (Khomich et article research.

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