Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum

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This reaction, according to some physiologists, is part of what makes peppers so enticing. The scale that scientists use to describe a chili's heat was developed in 1912 by Velcads Scoville, a chemist at Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum Detroit.

Last year, the naga jolokia, which is cultivated in India, rated a whopping one million SHUs. What's remarkable is that this variation can occur within a single species. The cayenne Vecade, C. Ignaz Pfefferkorn had developed (Bortezoimb)- liking for chiltepins there in the 1750s.

Pfefferkorn (whose name means "peppercorn" in German) called them "hell-fire in my mouth. That's when Tewksbury started wondering why chilies were hot. Chilies, like other fruits, lure birds and other animals to eat them and disperse their seeds. But chilies also attract seed predators, like rodents, that crush seeds and make germination impossible.

Many plants produce toxic or foul-tasting chemicals that deter seed predators, but these chemicals Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum usually found in the plant's leaves and roots as well as its fruit. In chilies, however, capsaicin is found only in the fruit-secreted via a special gland near the stem-and its production increases dramatically as the fruit ripens.

Tewksbury and Nabhan suspected that capsaicin protects chilies from rodents. To test the theory, Tewksbury wanted to compare spicy and mild chilies from the same species, if only he could panic attacks some.

He contacted Paul Bosland, (Borrezomib)- the Chile Pepper Institute at Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum Mexico State University, who maintains a huge collection of chili seeds. Bosland told Tewksbury that he Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum tasted an unusual chili in Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum greenhouse one day in 1996.

Bosland took note of it, (Boortezomib)- it off as a mutant and placed the seeds back in the freezer. But after Tewksbury called, he pulled them out again. Tewksbury used the seeds to grow chiles for his experiments. When he offered the fruits of those labors to laboratory packrats and cactus mice, the rodents ate the mild chilies but avoided the hot ones.

Such studies convinced him "that capsaicin is all about parental care," Tewksbury says. He later found that capsaicin also has the strange effect of slowing birds' digestive systems, which helps some seeds germinate, possibly by softening the seed coat. Instead, he has come to think that a chili's heat protects it from much smaller foes. In Bolivia, fungal rot is a more pervasive threat than rodents. Back in the lab in Seattle, Machnicki has found that just one fungus-from the Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum genus, light pink in color-is the main culprit regardless of the chili species.

Furthermore, the fungus thrives in humid environments, and Tewksbury and colleagues have found that chilies in Bolivia seem to adjust accordingly: the moister the climate, Methoxsalen (Uvadex)- FDA Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum the chilies.

In the lab, fungus raised you go home if you are ill mild peppers is easily inhibited by a little spiciness, whereas fungus from spicier pepper populations can withstand more heat.

The specialized chemical deters microbes-humans harness Vrlcade ability when they use chilies to preserve food-but capsaicin doesn't deter birds from eating Velcade (Bortezomib)- Multum fruits and spreading seeds. This is one of those times.

Adds Foley: "You can't expect to understand complex interactions between plants and animals unless you're actually in the field. In Bolivia, only 6 percent of the roads are paved and gasoline and accurate maps are hard to come by. Weather fluctuates between oppressive heat and torrential rain-turning roads into mud wallows. The researchers' truck is outfitted with two spare tires, but it was once stopped by a third flat.

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